He is probably in his mids, but more important, he is well coifed, as if, maybe, he is here for a dating event. She signals with an exaggerated arm wave to Hogan, and then addresses the man from her spot at the table. The man pauses, gathering his wits about him like a protective blanket. He becomes incredibly gracious and debonair as he turns to exit the museum.
Meanwhile, at another long table, women have been instructed to cut out quotes from printouts provided for that purpose. They are told to paste those quotes to the pictures they have drawn of one another. The quotes provided come from the Nobel laureates who are the subject of the exhibit that has been on display at the museum. Ironically, Wieder notes, most of the photos are of men. The men who thought of coming to this event and decided against it if they exist are missing out.
This is a sharp, funny group of ladies. The kind of women you imagine you might bump into at an art gallery. Katie Neal, a petite blond, found the event through a popular South Bay events website. She says she does a lot of community and charity work, and she keeps her fingers crossed that she might meet someone that way. She speculates that no men showed up because women are more willing to put themselves out there than men are. Jaray Watkins, whose smile and laugh light up the room, found out about the event from the same website as Neal.
Will anybody want to take my number?
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With the pressure off, the women simply enjoy themselves. There is Champagne and laughter, and quite a few creative pictures are completed.
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Later that evening, after the Times reporter has left the event, Solomon texts her an update. Then he invited another friend and we had drinks at Sausal. Friday, January 13, only. To read the article in Spanish, click here.
A raucous, rousing Trump protest show plays to a sold-out L. Watch a nightclub shooting in virtual reality? Painful subject makes for powerful art. Get Carolina A. Miranda's weekly newsletter for what's happening, plus openings, critics' picks and more. You may occasionally receive promotional content from the Los Angeles Times. Since joining the Los Angeles Times in , she has written about television, music, movies, books, art, fashion, food, cocktails and more. She once played bass in a band with an inexplicably large following in Spain, and still gets stopped by fans OK, maybe a fan on the streets of Barcelona.
She loves dive bars and very dry martinis with olives, though never simultaneously. Feedback: A white gatekeeper listens to Black playwrights. A new study calls out the lack of progress. Nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, are released into the water column, leading to an increase in nutrient load, which can lead to eutrophication.
Ammonia is excreted by the gills and other products of nitrogen and phosphorus are excreted in the feces. The release of phosphorus into freshwater environments is a concern because it is generally the most limiting element for algae growth, so its excessive introduction into water bodies can increase algae biomass and lead to harmful blooms, which results in decreased dissolved oxygen levels Holmer, Particulate organic material is mainly from the feed ration not consumed by fish and feces.
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Thus, food management is essential to reduce the impact of excess nutrients. To optimize food management, automatic feeders can be used, providing the feed according to defined growth models for the species cultivated Black, When an imbalance in the environment occurs and oxygen becomes limiting, geochemical changes in sediment and fauna can be extensive.
However, once nutrient introduction from fish farming is ceased, the recovery of the system is relatively fast. This recovery may take several months and be followed by a recolonization of the sediment by a community distinct from the previous one. The process of chemical and biological recovery is closely linked with bioturbation processes, which can result in an increase in the oxygen supply and rapid removal of nitrogen and phosphorus Black, Half of the nutrients supplied to the fish are lost through unconsumed food or fish feces and thus are available for phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and surrounding fish.
Loureiro et al.
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Rosini et al. Ramos et al. The authors observed among fish with a generalist diet A. On the other hand, severe histophysiological changes were detected in wild Geophagus cf. The use of pharmaceuticals antibiotics, antiparasitics is common in fish farming and is mainly used to treat infections and parasitic infestations. The use of these products is recommended because the presence of pathogens negatively affects animal welfare and consequently, productivity.
The adoption of best management practices BMPs helps reduce or eliminate the need for medication use. However, an alternative practice already being widely applied in fish farming is the use of specific vaccines, which has helped reduce the release of pharmaceuticals into the environment, as well as reduce fish mortality and improve their growth Alderman, ; Carpio et al. New cultivation methods are being considered to mitigate the impacts of fish farming in cages, such as the culture of shellfish and seaweed alongside or near the net cages.
In addition to the benefit of economic diversification, the most important effect is that these organisms absorb nutrients from the system, contributing to the reduction of excess nutrients released from fish production. This method is called integrated multitrophic aquaculture IMTA , which has garnered attention, as an opportunity to collaborate on sustainable aquaculture Black, ; Troell et al. According to Gunkel et al. Tilapia is produced across the world introduced in over countries , and advantages such as rapid growth, broad tolerance to environmental conditions, and well-established production technology are factors that influence the large-scale production of this species Canonico et al.
Due to its ability to adapt to diverse environmental conditions, tilapia, one of the main escaped species that are non-native in Brazil, may cause a biotic homogenization in the escape region Daga et al. This species occurs naturally in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins and is already adapted to cage fish farming, with a good index of production and high survival rates Gomes et al.
Some studies on the costs of Tambaqui production in fish cages have been performed and indicate a positive economic yield when grown in the Amazon region Gomes et al. Together with Tambaqui, it was considered one of the native species of Brazil with the greatest potential for aquaculture, according to a survey conducted by FAO Scott, There are few examples of Pacu production with fish cages. However, promising results have already been reported Urbinati et al. Bittencourt et al. In the same location Itaipu reservoir , Hilbig et al.
Other studies that guarantee profitability of Pacu production in fish cages located in reservoirs have also been performed, approaching nutrition, production indexes and the minimum scale of Pacu farming Silva et al. In addition to Tambaqui and Pacu, other native species have also been evaluated for potential production in cages. Barcellos et al.
For the grow-out phase of the species, Martinelli et al. Piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus omnivorous species , is widely distributed in the Neotropical region and is one of the six most commercially valuable species in Brazil Ceccarelli et al.
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Beux et al. The authors indicate that the species did not present good performance indexes, probably due to problems related to size heterogeneity, agonistic behavior and growth stabilization in the winter period. However, due to an economic interest in the species, further studies are still needed to evaluate its cultivation in fish cages, investing, for example, in places with lower temperature fluctuations. For these colder regions of Brazil, where in addition to the reduction of fish growth there is also a record of fish mortality in the winter period mainly for Tilapia , the creation of native species from temperate regions may be a solution.
Although the creation of fish with carnivorous habits is less sustainable than omnivores, species such as the Pirarucu, Arapaima gigas , and the Dourado, Salminus brasiliensis , have been studied for cultivation in fish cages.
Oliveira et al. Dourado, S. Braun et al. However, the stress parameters evaluated were considered high for the species. Thus, studies are still needed to develop a better protocol for the species. Escapes are primarily caused by incidents related to failures in farming equipment and their operation Jensen et al. In cage fish farming, confinement security should be a primary issue, especially when the fish species are exotic, obtained from interspecific crossings or genetically modified.
In recent years, Brazilian aquaculture has had a large increase in the production of hybrid species, resulting from the interspecific and intergenus crosses Hashimoto et al. Fish generated by crosses between different species can contaminate natural populations and constitute a significant threat to native wildlife Agostinho et al. Studies have shown that hybrid species may be fertile, and when these species escape, they can breed with native fish, contaminating the genetic diversity of wild populations Hashimoto et al.
In addition, these introduced species can directly damage the wild fish community, by consuming eggs and larvae of native species Canonico et al. Escapes in fish farming, especially from fish cages, in addition to generating a series of problems to the native ichthyofauna, can be one of the main means of dispersal of exotic species in new environments Ashikaga et al.
Problems associated with the escape of alien fish can be devastating to native communities, such as the escape of Nile Perch, Lates niloticus , and Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, which led to the collapse of native species of the Lake Victoria and Kyoga Lakes East Africa Ogutu-Ohwayo, These species caused the extinction of most of the native species and consequently resulted in a great social and economic problem in the region.
Among the measures that can be taken to avoid fish escapes, Jensen et al. As previously discussed, fish farming escapes from aquaculture stations occur from traditional fish farming and from fish cage systems installed in reservoirs. In excavated tanks, this control is facilitated with suitably sized screens installed at the exit channels of the grow-out ponds; additionally, care is given during cleaning to prevent tanks from overflowing or fish escaping during the handling process.
In fish cage systems, care should be even greater since handling is done inside of the reservoir. In addition to the mentioned measures, the use of an additional safety screen during handling may be a measure used to avoid fish leakage in the fish cage system. An alternative to minimizing impacts from accidental escapes is the use of sterilization technologies on the fish to be farmed e. The production of sterile individuals will prevent the escape of fertile individuals able to reproduce and establish in the reservoir.
The functional sterility of several species of triploid fish is proven Tiwary et al.
Another option to minimize the risks arising from accidental escapes is the cultivation of monosex lines, using the traditional method for the application of sex hormones, the tetraploidy technique Garcia et al. An additional advantage of monosex cultivation is that several species of fish have different growth potentials between males and females, allowing the fish farmer to exclusively cultivate the genus with greater zootechnical advantage or market value.
The production of interspecific and intergenus hybrids of fish is one of the most used techniques in global aquaculture, aiming to increase food production, aquarium fish production and recreational fishing Scribner et al. These crosses are generated to obtain genetic improvement Bartley et al. However, from an ecological point of view, these crosses in freshwater fish farming are a potential threat to the biodiversity of native fish Helfman, The problem associated with the use of hybrids has been reported by Toledo-Filho et al.
Currently, the production of hybrids in Brazil has reached great proportions, with the intentional production of more than 15 interspecific and intergenus crosses Hashimoto, ; Porto-Foresti et al.